Directional Coupling Interface between Si-rich nitride and Si3N4 Waveguides Towards the Monolithic Co-integration of QD-InP and Si3N4 Photonic Components on Si (Student paper)
Dimitrios Chatzitheocharis1,3, Themistoklis Chrysostomidis1,3, Giannis Roubos1,3, Dimitra Ketzaki2,3, Georgios Patsamanis1,3, Cosimo Calò4, Christophe Caillaud4, Davide Sacchetto5, Michael Zervas5, Konstantinos Vyrsokinos1,2
1 School of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
2 Department of Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
3 Centre for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
4 III-V Lab, a joint laboratory between Nokia, Thalès, and CEA Leti, 1 av. A. Fresnel 91767 Palaiseau, France
5 LIGENTEC SA, EPFL Innovation Park, Bâtiment C, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
We demonstrate a directional coupler for light transition from a Si-rich nitride (SRN) with a refractive index of n=3.165 at λ =1550nm to a Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) waveguide, presenting both a theoretical analysis for the optimization of the coupling losses and experimental results corresponding to the fabricated device. Both the material and the design have been engineered specifically for monolithic co-integration strategies of InP-based Quantum-Dot (QD) active components on the Si3N4 passive photonic platform. Our numerical calculations estimated coupling losses lower than 0.5dB for the whole C-band, while our experimental measurements from a test structure revealed minimum losses of 1.34dB at 1620nm. The proposed design is compatible with Back end of the Line (BEOL) 248nm DUV lithographic techniques targeting maximum exploitation of low cost Si3N4 inherent advantage.
Keywords: Coupling, Waveguide, Si-rich Nitride, Silicon Nitride, Integrated Optics, Silicon Photonics
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Horizontal slot-based polarization beam splitter on Silicon Nitride (Student paper)
Georgios Patsamanis1,2, Dimitra Ketzaki1,3, Dimitrios Chatzitheocharis1,2, Konstantinos Vyrsokinos1,2
1Centre for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
2School of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
3Department of Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
We present a compact broadband silicon nitride polarization beam splitter, based on a horizontal directional coupler consisting of a slot and a strip waveguide featuring high polarization selectivity across the entire 1500-1600nm wavelength span. Broadband 3D-FDTD numerical simulations reveal a performance of more than 19.4dB Polarization Extinction Ratio (PER) for TE polarization with a peak value of 41.6dB at 1550nm, while for the TM polarization the selectivity is higher than 12.2dB in the same 100nm wavelength range. The insertion losses for both polarizations are lower than 0.3dB in alignment with the low propagation properties of the SiN platform. The design is also tolerant to fabrication thickness errors and ultra-compact in terms of footprint.
Keywords: Polarization beam splitter, Directional coupling, Phase matching, Horizontal slot waveguide, Silicon nitride, Photonic integrated circuit
First results on an electro-optic visible multi-telescope beam combiner for next generation FIRST/SUBARU instruments
G. Martina, M. Foina, F. Gardilloub, C. Cassagnettesb, G. Ulliacc, N. Courjalc, K. Barjotd, S.Vievardd, N. Cvetojevicd, E. Hubyd, S. Lacourd
a Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France
b Teem Photonics, F-38240, Meylan, France
c FEMTO-ST, Univ. Franche-Comté, Besançon, F-25030, France
d LESIA/CNRS, F-92195, Meudon, France
Integrated optic devices are nowadays achieving extremely high performances in the field of astronomical interferometry, as shown by the PIONIER and GRAVITY instruments. Progress remains to be made in order to increase the number of apertures/beams/channels to be combined (up to 9) and eventually ensure on-chip phase modulation (for fringe temporal scanning). We present a novel generation of beam combiners, based on the hybridization of two integrated optic devices: (i) one producing glass waveguides, that can ensure very sharp bend radius, high confinement and low propagation losses, with (ii) a lithium niobate device providing phase modulators and channel waveguides that can achieve on-chip, fast (>100kHz) phase modulation. The aim of this work is to show our results on a hybrid device where splitting and phase modulation are achieved in the lithium niobate chip, coupled to a glass passive chip where all recombinations are done, to obtain interference fringes between the different inputs (i.e. telescopes or sub-apertures).
Keywords: integrated optics, visible interferometry, electro-optic modulation, Lithium Niobate, glass waveguides, Subaru Telescope, FIRST Instrument.
*firstname.lastname@example.org; phone +33 4 76 63 52 76; www. ipag.osug.fr
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Guided-Wave, Electro-Optic Electric-Field Sensors Utilizing Ti Diffused Lithium-Niobate (Ti:LiNbO3) Channel Waveguides
1 Hongik University
This paper comprehensively reviews and compares Ti:LiNbO3 integrated optic electric-field sensors, including the asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), 1 × 2 directional coupler (DC), and Y-fed balanced-bridge Mach-Zehnder interferometer (YBB-MZI), based on the operating principles, the dc/ac electrical and optical characteristics, and electric-field measurements for each fabricated device, respectively.
Keywords: integrated-optics, electric-field sensor, electro-optic effect, Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide,
Optimized low-loss integrated photonics silicon-nitride Y-branch splitter
I.A. Krutov, M.Yu. Saygin, I.V. Dyakonov, S.P.Kulik
Quantum Technology Centre, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University,
GSP-1, Leninskie gory, Moscow 119991 Russian Federation
Losses is the main detrimental factor that limits the scale of quantum photonic information processing circuits at which they can implement quantum algorithms effectively. Here, we have designed a compact and low-loss Y-branch integrated photonic element for silicon-nitride waveguide. By finite difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulation, we have obtained the optimized geometry of the element with loss level of <0:1 dB at the target wavelength of 808 nm.
Chiroptical Applications Enabled by Integrated Photonic Waveguides (Student Paper)
J. Enrique V´azquez-Lozano, Alejandro Mart´ınez
Nanophotonics Technology Center, Universitat Polit
ecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Chiral spectroscopy is a routine technique for identifying the chirality of matter through optical means. So far, all the approaches to analyze the chirality of chemical analytes or artificial nanostructures consider arrangements in which the input light propagates through free space. A similar conception for chiral sensing and spectroscopy may also be applicable in integrated photonic platforms. This would bring about numerous practical benefits such as miniaturization, massive parallel detection, low-cost and large-volume production, repeatability, portability, or integration with electronics, among others. Here we show that all-dielectric integrated photonic waveguides can support chiral modes under proper combination of fundamental eigenmodes. Specifically, we analyze numerically two different scenarios in which such waveguides could be used for chiroptical applications: waveguides as nearfield probes for excitation and read-out of chiral light-matter interaction (in-gap configuration), and evanescentinduced chiral interaction (on-top configuration). For simplicity, a metallic nanohelix modeled as a PEC is regarded as a chiral probe, though it would be extensible to other geometries and materials more relevant.
Our results may open up new perspectives towards chiroptical applications, such as sensing or spectroscopy, in silicon-based integrated photonic platforms compatible with standard CMOS technology.
Keywords: optical chirality, circular dichroism, chiral sensing, chiroptical spectroscopy, integrated photonics.
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Light-Intensity Distributions in Distributed-Feedback Resonators
Jerry Yeung1 and Markus Pollnau1
1 Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey,
Guildford GU2 7XH, United Kingdom
Based on the circulating-field approach that has been used to calculate the optical properties of Fabry-Pérot resonators, we introduce a simple recursive method to obtain the exact electric-field and intensity distributions in arbitrary multi-resonator structures exhibiting intrinsic propagation losses. Reflectivity, transmissivity, and propagation-loss curves and light-intensity distributions along the resonator axis are calculated for distributed feedback (DFB) resonators with uniform propagation losses and consequences for DFB lasers are discussed.
Keywords: Bragg gratings, distributed-feedback resonators, intensity distributions, calculation methods.
Silicon nitride passive photonic platform for applications at visible wavelengths: design, fabrication and characterization (Student Paper)
Marcin Lelit1,2, Mateusz Słowikowski1,2, Andrzej Kaźmierczak1, Stanisław Stopiński1, Krzysztof Anders1, Maciej Filipiak2, Marcin Juchniewicz2, Bartłomiej Stonio1,2, Bartosz Michalak2, Krystian Pavłov2, Piotr Wiśniewski1,2, Romuald B. Beck1,2 and Ryszard Piramidowicz1
1Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
2 Warsaw University of Technology, Centre for Advanced Materials and Technologies CEZAMAT, Poleczki 19, 02-822 Warsaw, Poland
Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a material of choice for development of versatile photonic platform due to its wide transparency window ranging from visible to mid-infrared range, CMOS-compatibility, low loss and compactness of the devices. In this paper, we report recent results of development of Si3N4-based photonic devices as an initial step to establish flexible generic technology photonic platform and to offer multi-project wafer (MPW) production runs. Three sets of test devices have been developed: waveguides (WGs) including tapers and bends, symmetrical multimode interferometer (MMIs) couplers and arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs). Obtained results confirms robustness of the Si3N4 material platform. Average measured losses in WGs at 660 nm of 1.7 ± 0.5 dB/cm have been achieved with average single 90° bend loss of 0.22 ± 0.01 dB for 100 μm bending radius. MMIs 1×2 show average losses of 0.49 ± 0.05 dB and MMIs 1×4 of 5.53 ± 0.43 dB. Measured AWGs 1×8 free spectral range and channel spacing match design values.
Keywords: silicon nitride, photonic integrated circuits, biophotonics, silicon photonics, arrayed waveguide grating, generic technology
Fabrication of Silicon Nitride PIC by Laser Direct Writing
Mauricio Tosi1, Jeffry H. Martínez2, Roberto Peyton2, Alejandro Fasciszewki1, Gustavo Torchia2,3, Nicolás Abadía3,4, Jorge Parra5, Pablo Sanchis5, Laureano A. Bulus-Rossini1,3,6, Pablo A. Costanzo-Caso1,3,6
1Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Argentina
2Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas – CIOp (CONICET – CICPBA – UNLP), La Plata (BA), Argentina
3Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina
4Institute for Compound Semiconductors & School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
5Nanophotonics Technology Center, Universitat Politècnica de València, Cam. de Vera, 46022 Valencia, Spain
6Instituto Balseiro (Universidad Nacional de Cuyo – CNEA), Bariloche (RN), Argentina
We report our first results in the fabrication of photonic integrated circuits in silicon nitride platform by laser direct writing. These are novel and preliminary results in the area of micro-fabrication of photonic integrated circuits in Argentina and the Latin-American region. We were able to demonstrate the feasibility to carry out a maskless high-resolution lithography via a low cost process.
Keywords: photonics, silicon nitride platform, direct writing laser, photolithography, micro-fabrication.
FSR free coupled microring resonator filter on extended C-band in silicon photonics (Student Paper)
Maziyar Milanizadeh, Matteo Petrini, Francesco Morichetti and Andrea Melloni
Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria – Politecnico di Milano,
Milano, 20133 Italy
In this work we present a modified Vernier scheme which allows the realization of FSR free filters based on coupled micro ring resonators overcoming the limits induced by the constraints on the physical dimensions of the cavities. We present a two stage optimization procedure to design a tunable filter with no FSR. Through experimental trials we demonstrate the design procedure on a 4 ring filter operating FSR-free over 60 nm.
Keywords: Photonic Integrated Circuits, Silicon Photonics, Ring Resonators, Optical Add Drop, Hitless Filters.
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Mode-splitting in a ring resonator for self-referenced sensing (Student paper)
M. de Goede1, M. Dijkstra1, N. Acharyya2,3, G. Kozyreff2 and S.M. García-Blanco1
1 Optical Sciences, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, the Netherlands
2 Optique Nonlinéaire Théorique, Université libre de Bruxelles, CP 231, Brussels, Belgium
3 Max-Born-Institut für Nicthlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, D-12489 Berlin, Germany
An optical microring resonator has a two-fold degeneracy corresponding with two counterpropagating modes, one travelling in the clockwise and the other in the counterclockwise direction. Inserting a Bragg grating on the surface of the ring provides coupling between these modes, which lifts the degeneracy and induces mode-splitting of the resonances. The amount of mode-splitting is directly related to the reflectivity of the grating and can be affected by structurally modifying the grating by, for instance, binding of biomolecules to it. Environmental perturbations to the surroundings of the grating, such as temperature or bulk refractive index variations, hardly affect the grating reflectivity, and thus the mode-splitting. This principle allows self-referenced sensor operation based on variations of the mode-splitting induced by structural changes of the grating.
Keywords: microring resonator, mode-splitting, biosensing, Al2O3
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Self-referenced Sensing in Microring Resonators
Nirmalendu Acharyya 1 Mohamed Maher 2 and Gregory Kozyreff 2
1Max-Born-Institut f¨ur Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, D-12489 Berlin, Germany
2Optique Nonlin´eaire Th´eorique, Universit´e libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), CP 231, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
e-mail: Nirmalendu.Acharyya@mbi-berlin.de email@example.com
Ultra-sensitive detection of analytes can be performed using whispering gallery mode resonators. However, monitoring the small changes in the resonances requires a bulky and expensive spectrometer or a tunable laser source. This limits the use of these efficient sensors within specialized labs. In response to this issue, we propose a self-heterodyne sensing scheme using a microring resonator that is (1) covered with a Bragg grating and (2) functionalized only over two opposite quarters of its perimeter. As the analyte binds to the functionalized area, a limited set of modes near the edge of the Brillouin zone undergo splitting. With increasing analyte concentration, the splitting grows monotonously. With currently available Q factors, this splitting can be small enough to be monitored by conventional electronics. On the other hand, the high sensitivity and low limit of detection seen in more conventional schemes are preserved.
Keywords: Whispering gallery mode resonators, Bragg grating, self-referenced biosensing, resonance splitting
Enabling High-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy and Detection using Integrated Photonics
N. Verellen1*, Q. Deng1,2, O. Arisev1,2, D. Kouznetsov1,2, K. de Wijs1,2, S. Libbrecht1, Md. Mahmud ul Hasan1, M. Ferreira Cao1, B. Du Bois1, P. Neutens, Z. Luo1,2, S. Ha1,2, K. Covens1, R. Vos1, L. Lagae1,2, and P. Van Dorpe1,2
1 imec, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven, Belgium
2 KU Leuven, Dept. of physics and astronomy, Leuven, Belgium
For many applications in life sciences, the biologically relevant information is probed by means of visible light. Many of the critical optical components have, unfortunately, still a large footprint and heavy price tag. Silicon nitride integrated waveguide optics –allowing for complex routing schemes of visible light across a chip– assumes a prominent role in the progressing miniaturization of optical devices. Here, we demonstrate how our recently developed integrated opto-fluidic chips, fabricated in a 200mm CMOS pilot line, allow aggressive miniaturization of cell imaging–structured illumination fluorescence microscopy, and in-flow cell counting–cytometry.
Keywords: microscopy, cytometry, structured illumination, fluorescence, silicon nitride, thermo-optic modulator
CMOS Compatible Thermal Management Solutions for Silicon Photonic Optical Phased Arrays
Pedro-Andrei Krochin-Yepez1,2, Ulrike Scholz1 , Andre Zimmermann2,3
1 Department of Microsystems and Nanotechnologies (CR/ARY), Corporate Sector Research and Advance Engineering, Robert Bosch GmbH, 71272 Renningen, Germany
2 Institute for Micro Integration (IFM), University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
3 Hahn-Schickard. 70569 Stuttgart Germany
Silicon photonic optical phased arrays (OPAs) are promising candidates to become the next generation beam steering systems. However, due to the large thermo-optic coefficient of silicon, their functionality depends strongly on the temperature. Therefore, efficient thermal management solutions, allowing for efficient heat dissipation as well as reduction of on-chip temperature gradients, are required to guarantee the correct functionality of silicon photonic OPAs. Here, two CMOS compatible thermal management solutions are proposed and evaluated. The proposed solutions can be implemented either individually or in combination to address the different thermal management requirements of any particular OPA system.
Keywords: optical phased arrays, OPAs, silicon photonics, photonic thermal management, CMOS.
PECVD SiN photonic integrated circuit for swept source OCT at 840 nm (Student Paper)
Nevlacsil S.1, Muellner P.1, Maese-Novo A.1, Sagmeister M.2, Kraft J.2,
Rank E.3, Drexler W.3, Hainberger R.1
1AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Giefinggasse 4, 1210, Vienna, Austria
2ams AG, Tobelbader Straße 30, 8141 Premst¨atten, Austria
3Medical University of Vienna, W¨ahringer G¨urtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique widely used for retinal diagnostics, typically operating in the wavelength region around 840 nm. Current state of the art systems use a combination of bulk and/or fiber optical components, which limits their utilization due to high cost and large dimensions. With photonic integrated circuits (PICs) both aspects can be reduced allowing for a more widespread use, especially for point of care applications. In this paper, we present the design of a prototype PIC for a swept source (SS) OCT system operating in the 840 nm wavelength region with a bandwidth of up to 100 nm. Due to the operation wavelength silicon nitride (SiN) is used as the waveguiding material. The SiN fabrication is done with a lowtemperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process to ensure CMOS-compatibility. This enables the subsequent monolithic co-integration of opto-electronic and electronic components for on-chip signal detection and analogue to digital conversion. With the fabricated SiN waveguide chip, we show for the first
time a PIC based SS-OCT system capable of in-vivo retinal imaging.
Keywords: photonic integrated circuit, optical coherence tomography, silicon nitride, PECVD
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