InP-based Photonic Integration: Achievements and Opportunities
1Oclaro Technology Limited, Caswell, Towcester, NN12 8EQ, UK
2Photonic Integration Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) technology based on indium phosphide has evolved over more than 30 years to become a key enabler for high-performance optical communications systems, which form the backbone of the internet, fixed and mobile telephony and all of the data-intensive systems on which modern life depends. In order to accommodate the exponential growth of internet traffic, modern optical fibre systems often employ wavelength division multiplexing with 80-100 channels, using tunable lasers operating under electronic control, whilst advanced modulation schemes coupled with coherent transmission techniques allow very high bit rates (100 Gbit/s per wavelength and above) with high spectral efficiency. The use of such advanced techniques is greatly facilitated by the adoption of integrated photonics and compact coherent transmission modules based on InP PICs are now in volume production alongside existing PIC-based integrated laser-modulator and receiver products for 10 Gbit/s and 40 Gbit/s. High data rate communications within and between data centres present further exciting opportunities for InP PICs.
Glass and Glass-Ceramic Photonic Systems
Anna LUKOWIAK1, Lidia ZUR2,3, Davor RISTIC4,5, Alessandro CHIASERA3, Stefano VARAS3, Thi Ngoc Lam TRAN6,3,7, Marcello MENEGHETTI8,3, Daniele ZONTA6,3,9, Dominik DOROSZ10, Giancarlo C. RIGHINi2,11, Roberta RAMPONI12, Maurizio FERRARI3,2*
1Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAS, Okolna St. 2, 50-422 Wroclaw, Poland
2Centro di Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi”, Piazza del Viminale 1, 00184 Roma, Italy
3IFN-CNR CSMFO Lab., and FBK Photonics Unit via alla Cascata 56/C Povo, 38123 Trento, Italy
4Ruđer Bošković Institute, Division of Materials Physics, Laboratory for Molecular Physics, Bijenička c. 54, Zagreb, Croatia
5Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Research unit New Functional Materials, Bijenička c. 54, Zagreb, Croatia
6Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, Trento University Via Mesiano, 77, 38123 Trento, Italy
7Ho Chi Minh City University of Technical Education, 1 Vo Van Ngan Street, Linh Chieu Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
8Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, via Sommarive 14, Povo, 38123 Trento, Italy
9Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow, G11XJ, UK
10Bialystok University of Technology, Department of Power Engineering, Photonics and Lighting Technology, 45D Wiejska St., Bialystok 15-351, Poland.
11MDF Lab.IFAC – CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
12IFN-CNR and Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy.
The development of optically confined structure is a major topic in both basic and applied physics not solely ICT oriented but also concerning lighting, laser, sensing, energy, environment, biological and medical sciences, and quantum optics. Glasses and glass-ceramics activated by rare earth ions are the bricks of such structures. Glassceramics are nanocomposite systems that exhibit specific morphologic, structural and spectroscopic properties allowing to develop interesting new physical concepts, for instance the mechanism related to the transparency, as well as novel photonic devices based on the enhancement of the luminescence.
Optical Isolators and Circulators for Silicon Photonics
Tetsuya MIZUMOTO1*, Yuya SHOJI2
1School of Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552, Japan
2Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552, Japan
Optical isolators and circulators play unique roles in photonic circuits. Optical isolators allow light waves to propagate in pre-determined directions while preventing the propagation in other directions. This function is essential for protecting optical active devices from reflected light. Optical circulators play important roles in realizing highly functional photonic circuits. In particular, the optical circulator is necessary for processing reflected light signals in sensing applications. The magneto-optical polarization rotation, which is used in conventional isolators and circulators, cannot be applied in realizing these devices on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguide platforms because of the phase matching issue between TE and TM modes . The magnetooptical phase shift has a distinct advantage over the polarization rotation.